IMPLEMENTING URBAN DESIGN
In this article the role of urban design and designer is mentioned in the development process of a project. It is mentioned under four steps as the role of property development and the development process, “pipeline” model of development process, roles and relationships in the development process and issues of urban design quality.
Explaination of development process is summarized such as process incluiding of combining various inputs ( Land/Labour/Materials/Finance), and composing output and product as change of land use/ new altered building. In the middle of this process entrepreneur(developer) takes place with the role of bringing inputs together. The most clear explaination belongs to Michael Ball about development process he defines this process as a function of social relations specific to time and place, involving a variety of key actors.
To understand development process, some models are ımproved. Equilibrum Models: Includes effective demand,Event-sequence Model: gives improtant to management of stages in process, Agency Models: Explains actors and their relationships in the process, Strucr-ture Models: Explains relation between capital labour and land, Institutional Models: Mentions about events and agencies.
In this article development process is handled with event-sequence model with the pipe-line model that consits of development pressure and prospects, development feasibility and implementation. All of these stages are examined interms of public sector and developer. In a development process there can be external influences and these cause pressure. At the satge of feasibility, it is tested under five ways such as ownership constraints, in this occasion being multiple ownership can cause requiring land assembly. The other way is physical conditions such as site’s physical capasity, location, density and all of these effect developers statement. Third way is public procedures. All pocedures should include planning and development consent. These regulations give direction to development. Market condition is fourth way that consider of trade of between risk and reward, besides todays demand and predicted demand for future. The last way is project viability which is the most important part for both public and private sector because of the balance between cost and profit of the project. Design effects the cost and at sometimes viability requires modification of design to increase the land uses likely to produce most revenue. Developers arrange two types of finance; short term finance to cover costs during the development process and long term finance to cover the cost of holding the completed development as an investment.
The final implementation stage includes construction and sale or letting. Between all these process the other most important factor is key actors and their relationship with eachother. Because different actors perform different roles in the development process. Actors can be differ according to being demand or supply side. While investors, occupies, public sector (regulation), adjacent landowners and general public are in demand side, landowners, funders, builder play at the other side. Approach to price, design issues and factors of motivation differs according to these actors. The relationship between these actors defines development quality. So, urban designer never alone at this process. Designer have to mediater between these actors( suppliers, producers and consumers) with his/her design needs.
To sum up, in a development process objectives and golas of actors ar different for urban design project and it reflects to design quality. While urban designer waiting results of project in a long terms land owners waiting an increase land values in short term because of profit. In contrast to higher architectural quality and better quality materials, better urban design may involve no additional costs for viability.