23 Mart 2008 Pazar

Three Theories Of Urban Spatial Design

The research identifies urban design theory with three aproaches which are figure Grand theory, linkage theory and place theory. Eachother is important to understand evolution of modern spaces and the analysis of historic precedents.
Figure-ground theory is based on the connection between voids(figure) and solids (ground). How can we define solids and voids pattern ? And how can we use these relationships in existing pattern? These define structre of the urban space in the city such as major land Marks, open spaces and buildings.
The best example of the figure-ground theory of urban design is Giambattista Nolli’s Map of Rome.İn Nolli, Open space is a positive thing that is more figural than solids. İn spite of the modern concept of space. The open space is characterized like an interier and exterial spaces and with activities.
The term poche is used in figure-groun theory. This term defines walls, colon and other solid of buildings. On the other hand, on exterior, poche is energy the buildings to their neighboring voids.
The figure-ground theory points out that vertical elements on the large ground cause to be vast and horizontal places must be well articulated.
Avlar Aalto of Finland is most important architects about describing achive positive voids. The way is that the structures have more caverage than the surrounding firl and is carved out of mass.
Suzana Torre associates, spatial orientation is defined by the the configuration of urban block that collectively form districts neighborhoods. It is the articulation and differ-entiation of solids and voids that make up the fabric of the city and establish the physical sequences and visual orientation between places.
Figure-ground studies disclosure urban form as six typological patterns solids and voids that are grid, angular, curvilinear, radial cocentric, axial and organic.
Urban solids and voids: Urban solids are defined under three types. First type is public moniments or instiutions which serve as counter pieces in the city fabric. Secand type is predominant field of urban blocks and the last type is formed by directional or edge defining builds that are generally onrepetitive, specialized forms often linear in configuration. Otherwise, urban voids are caracterized by five types such as the entry foyer space or passages, iner block voids, network of streats and squares, public parks and gardens, linear open space system commenly related to major wate features.
The Linkage Theory is based on ‘live’ correctly each parts of city. These lines that invole streats, pedestian roads, linear open space o other, correct buildins to spaces.
This theory regars to organize a system of corrects or a network that establishes a stucture for ordering space.
Compositional form includes individual buildings and typical of Functional planing methots.
Mega form regards connection between individual spaces and includes a frame network in a hierarchical.
Group form results from a incremental accumulation of structures along an armature of communal open space and linkage is naturally and organically evolved.
All three types, Maki emphases linkage as the controlling idea for ordering buildings and spaces in design.
Kenzo Tange, 1960s points out the problem of containing exterior space and designed around circulation patterns.
The Place theory is differ from linkage and figure-ground theory about regarding cultural and human characteristing of physical space. İt is derived from cultrul and regional content. A place only has characteristic of physical but also has sociol. The goal is to achive creating both a place that is well designed physically and a place that has cultrul and historical concepts.
Ian Mcharg brings the term ‘ecological approche’ to design which depends on discovering and working with the qualities of given local.
Kevin Lynch studied on the mental mapping process of individuals in the city and he looked at city in parts in attempt to define a theory of place. He submits three rules for designing city places such as legibility, imageability and structure and identity.
Another approch is that liveable streets projects by Donald Apployard. He points out the physical and social complexities of street and developed an ecology of street life.

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