20 Nisan 2008 Pazar

7th week submission

UD 514 Spring’08 IYTE
7th Week Summary Submission

Contents of Urban Design

This article written by Baykan Günay, presents contents of urban design or what an urban designer deals with within 8 contradictions, in some place comparing with urban planning and also architecture.

Scale; planning is general is defined as the description of processes generating a city, determination of alternative development strategies, making of decisions, implementation and also allocation of resources. On the other hand, design is the part of the process too, covering the necessary sequence of actions to put planning. Macro scale where image and character are developed at, further consolidate at the meso scale and becomes important inputs in the design of the environment besides functional criteria. In this connection, districts, center, green systems, development corridors, regeneration in built-up areas are all matters of urban design at the meso scale. Moreover, aesthetical, visual or symbolic values do not consider worth designing are all basic issues of urban design.

Space-Place Dualism; architecture biased preferred terminology based on space-mass relations, while planners approached it from the place-community integrity. A very simple definition of urban space concentrates on its physical three-dimensional quality, while place is described as a space inhabiting a function or an activity, or a setting which has meaning for those who live, observe or perceive it. According to the author Trancik, lost space is leftover, unstructed or a landscape, but as regards to Auge idetifies non-place with space of flows (M. Castells) ; traveller’s space, gated communities, theme parks, shopping malls.

Physical Structure-Activity Structure; urban form is an outcome of the bonds between activities-adapted spaces and flows-channels. The activities and flows among them, build up the physical structure of cities and parts of cities. In this relationship activity system is generating physical structure in a new development zone. In modern era; this refers to “form follows function”. But new activity in existing function causes tension emerging between form and function since activity is dynamic but physical structure is static and hard to change.

Built-up Areas-New Development Zones; design strategy aims at sun, space and greeny in development zones and slum clearence in built-up areas. When public policies turn their focus on built-up areas tax revenues which declines due to slum formations, urban ideologies starts to change and concepts like identity, place, space and association are introduced. Besides, new development zones are soft spaces while built-up areas are hard spaces.
Urban Design-Civic Design; civic design covers the ceremonial or institutional aspects of the public realm, whereas urban design covers the whole city. Early in the 20th century in United State, civic design is living its golden age within City Beautiful Movement. Today we are discussing the design problems of all parts of the city to include production areas, transition zones so policies, methods, groups involved, finance and maintenance will differ and alternative contents will evolve when there is a determined state power acting in the urban area, or more modest control of the city and its prts by public bodies.

Public Versus-Private Sphere; according to author, in many cases the word public is incorrectly used since a mystical is attributed to the concept. When they analysed as a part of property relation they become more meaningful. Private is more clear. It refers to individuals and private corporations and their domination over things. On the other hand, meaning of public is more diffucult to define; common, commonual, public, collective, social have often been used to refer to the different types of domination of the non-private sphere. It is believed that urban design is a public policy which requires special attention to study this vast topic.

Design in One Property- Design For Many Property; this subject indicates the problem of land subdivison. This is one of the more critical planning decisio. Once established, the pattern essentially remains forever andcan only be changed at great cost, effort nad political will. While architetural products are shaped towards demands of owners or clients and design approach, urban planning is surrounded with land subdivisons sometimes transcend architectural or easthetical considerations. Patterns of ownership effect both the process of space production and form of the city.

Object Design-Process Design; amongst many author, there is a contradiction between object design and process design. According to Brown, when one is confronted with client in one property or set of a object, this is architectural design. But one is dealing with multitude of actors, their preferences, restricted financial sources, indefinite tima, then urban designer has to instently stay in the process to continuously guide the evolution of the urban environment.

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