CONTEXTS FOR URBAN DESIGN
In this article types of conrexts and their effects are mentioned in terms of urban design. These contexts for urban design are local, global, market and regulatory.
The main point is all of these contexts can be changed over time but they are relatively fived and typically outside the scope of the urban designer. Important point is that they have to be accepted as givens. On the other hand, although designer has an affect on relationship or boundaries between context and dimensions interms of form and visual appearance, local, global context and effect of market stays constant.
¨ LOCAL CONTEXT
Urban design action involves public realm and development of project. Site is part of the context. All projects of urban design contribute with their own site and their local context. In urban design, place’s unique quality can be design resource and it can be delicated with context. Context can be directed urban desihn projects succesfully. Low wnvironmental quality has greater opportunity for creation of new character. All sites has historic, aesthetic, cultural and social qualities and thes can be compose local context.
By the time people preferences and choices, economy, uniqueness of site, unified character, quality,place matters and also globalisation and developing technology can affect local context. In some cases the effects of these can be damage the local context. The important points is to embedded to time and technology not to transform.
¨ GLOBAL CONTEXT
The pressures that mentioned above have both local and global dimensions and provide link between local and global contexts. Local actions have global impacts and consequences, while global actions have local impacts and consequances. Local and global contexts have dialectical relationship. In this article especially the effect of global warming, changing climate, insufficient resources and their effects on urban design are mentioned in terms of sustainable development. However the concept of sustainable development includes not only environmental, but also economic and social sustainability.Urban designers need to have regard to social impacts and long term economic viability, as well as environmental impacts. But the problem is the tendency to privalege short term urgent needs at the expense of long term important ones. Environmental concerns are always seens as someone else’s problem. Because of this long terms solutions or impacts are not be concerned.
¨ THE MARKET & REGULATORY CONTEXT
The last two contexts represents different sides of the same state-market coin.Market context depends on forces of supply and demand. On this economy (market economy) the role of private sector and state is important. Private sector searchs for provit and interested in short term rebacks. Economic viability is important for both private and state. In private sector, viability is concerned in terms of the balance between risk and reward, with reward seen primarily in terms of profit. In the public sector viability is concerned both in terms of value for public money and in terms of the broader objective of achieving and maintaining a healty economy. We can summarize this process as in an urban public makes places and their needs attraction and well design. Investors should supply well designed environment to gain desired profit. In considering market state relations, distinction must be made between mixed and market-led economies. As both are, in a strict sense, mixed economies, the distinction is between the state playing a more, or a less, significant and direct role in the management of the economy. In mixed economies the state generally has a more executive role with direct action public agencies. In market economy privatism became a dominat relaation between private and state. So urban design operates in a real worl and also urban designers is constrained and bounded by forces of market and regulatory that are beyond its control or influence.