3 Haziran 2008 Salı

13th Week Summary Submission

UD 514 Spring’08 IYTE
13th Week Summary Submission
Implementing Urban Design

Awareness of the development process, particularly of the balance between risk and reward that drives it, helps urban designer gain a deeper understanding of both the context in which they operate and the force acting upon the process by which their design policies proposals and projects origiate and are implemented. As they need to argue the case for urban design and more particularly the case for better quality urban design, their arguments can be more pursuasive if informed by this awareness.
In this article, it is focused on the role of urban designer in the development process with four main section; the role of property development and the development process, “pipeline” model of development process, roles and relationships in the development process and issues of urban design quality.

Land and Property Development process involves combination of various inputs; Land, Labour, Materials, Finance in order to achieve an output and product. Classically “entrepreneur” brings these togethert and add values them. Product is change of land use and or a new or altered building, intended to have a higher value than the cost of the transformation. For the process to be profitable, the amount received from sales must be greater than the cost of production. To understand the development process some models are devised.
Equilibrum Models: Development activity is structured by economic signals about effective demand
Event-sequence Model: Management of stages in development process
Agency Models: Actors and their relationships in the development process
Structure Models: Relation between capital labour and land
Institutional Models: Role of events and agencies

Development pipeline model-an event-sequence model- focuses principally on private sector development, the stages and principles are broadly similar regardless of wether the developer is the public sector or a non-profit organisation.

Development pressure and prospects
Urban designer’s role; (acting for developer)
Spots opportunitiy
Identifies suitable sites
Provides vision
Prepares master plan for site
Urban designer’s role; (acting for public sector)
Anticipates development pressure
Spots and promotes development opportunities
Prepares planning policy framework
Provides vision
Prepares development framework
Prepares development brief for master plan for area
Directs and attracts development to suitable sites
Influences developer’s brief forthe site

Development Feasibility
Urban designer’s role; (acting for developer)
Carries out feasible study
Provides advice
Prepares design proposals
Negotiates with planning authority
Prepares and submits planning application
Urban designer’s role; (acting for public sector)
Negotiates with developer
Provides advice
Comments on design proposals
Makes decision on planning application

Urban designer’s role; (acting for developer)
Quality of scheme may seal commitment with funders
Ensures quality of development
Influences management of development
Urban designer’s role; (acting for public sector)
Ensures quality of development
Influences management of development

Implementation; the developer’s ultimate aim is to produce a marketable development: that is, one for which occupiers and or investors are willing to pay a rent or purchase at a price that at least covers development and site costs. The final, implementation, stage includes both construction and sale or lettering. Once implemetation starts, developers lose their flexibility of action. The main task is to ensure that work is carried out at the appropriate speed, cost and quality. In short term, time and cost can crowd out concerns for quality, but in the long term they recede in importance relative quality.

There are 2 sides; “demand” and “suppl”y that “consume” and “produce” the development.
Investors occupiers, regulation, adjacent landowners and general public are in demand side, in long term scale, investors look for profit maximisation, occupiers look for cost minimisation, regulation and general public’s price strategies are neutral.
Landowners, developers, funders, builder are in supply side, in short term scale, their financial strategy is profit maximization.

In conclusion chapter of the article, it is emphasized that public sector-like private sector-rarely operates in isolation, it is the the successful partnership between public and private that, over time, offers the greatest potential for successful, sustainable urban design.

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